Man has always made ​​the soap by mixing hot vegetable fats (or animals) with soda, with this procedure, the fatty substances initial split into glycerol and fatty acids, soap. In the eighteenth century, it was understood that the molecule of the soap was elongated and that its two ends behave in a different manner, one is attracted to water (hydrophobic), while the other rejects ( hydrophobic ). The hydrophobic end of the molecule, has the ability to adhere to the particles of dirt bandoleer and exposing the hydrophobic part of the molecules of the soap. This means that the dirt is water soluble and can be rinsed away. To make soap, can be used any fat type, the nature of which, however, affects the characteristics of the soap detergents. The soap made ​​with lard, for example, washes very well, is gentle on the skin, but produces little foam. The guide to follow, will show you what are the most commonly used in cleaning products and their characteristics.


If you look around you will find hundreds of types of soap and detergents. The detergents were invented to do the same job of soap: dissolve dirt without forming a foam insoluble. Now the soap industry is able to select specific detergents for all types of dirt and for all types of cleaning .

The detergent for dishwashers, is strong and aggressive, its alkaline pH is around values ​​between 10 and 12; cleans very well and the plates can also be used for the cleaning of dirty very strong. Liquid detergent for dishes, however, is more delicate and is also the most neutral detergent, is designed to remove the grease and rinse easily.

The detergent powder, containing silicate and sand to take action even abrasive detergent biological (or enzymes ), represents the largest part of the detergents on the market; acts on the protein stains such as egg yolk, milk, sauces, blood, sweat, urine, vomit, faeces and other organic substances.

Typically, the detergent with enzymes, contains bacteria cultures, which upon contact with hot water, are activated producing a series of enzymes which digest the organic matter present; until there their food source (the stain ), the bacteria continue to reproduce up to a complete digestion of the contaminant, after which die for lack of nourishment. The biological detergents, should not be used on natural fibers of animal origin, such as wool and silk, and the rubberized fabrics.